筆記:MLS球員需知及條件

各個MLS球隊球員完整陣容為二十八人:職業隊﹝Senior Roster﹞十八人、預備隊﹝Developmental Roster﹞十人,預備隊成員不可超過十人、職業隊則不可超過十八人。這二十八人可在賽季期間無論有無比賽都可揀選之。

職業隊﹝Senior Roster﹞球員條件:

一、國內球員,需具有美國公民證或是擁有綠卡的長久居留者,或是在特殊情況下居住在美國者﹝ex.流亡者、被收容安置於美國者﹞,此項不受年齡及國籍數量限制。

二、外國球員(S-I),不具有條件一之球員者,每支球隊僅能有四名外國球員,需年滿二十五歲﹝於賽季中滿二十五歲亦可﹞。
*位居於加拿大多倫多的TFC享有特殊條件,因位居加拿大故在S-I、SYI 球員可多享有三人名額。

三、來自國外的年輕球員(SYI),低於二十四歲、不具有美國公民證、綠卡者,在其將滿二十五歲那一年始可放進S-I 陣容中。2005年開始允許將來自國外的年輕球員們放至二十八人陣容中,每隊僅限持有三名此類球員數量。不同於其他職業隊陣容合約,年輕球員可簽短期或是永久合約,無論是職業隊合約亦或是預備隊合約。

預備隊﹝Developmental Roster﹞成員條件需知:


預備隊(Dev),不管是否因職業隊球員受傷而長期離陣皆不可超過十人。年齡低於二十四歲﹝門將則為二十五歲﹞,預備隊的球員合約及薪資並不算在球隊預算當中,但其薪資限需低於年薪一萬美金。預備隊的合約可隨時被解除及新簽,簽預備隊球員次數無限制,但陣中人數不可超過十人

球隊可自Adidas Generation合作的球員中揀選球員,透過選秀會、發崛國內外新人、棄選系統等的簽下球員放置在此陣容中。

I 獲得球員的方式有以下十種方式﹝
METHODS OF PLAYER ACQUISITION﹞

MLS teams may acquire players and add them to their Senior and Developmental rosters via the following 10 mechanisms:

(A.) ALLOCATIONS

A club receives an allocation for (1) poor performance during the preceding MLS regular season; (2) as a replacement in the case of the departure or transfer of key players; (3) due to expansion status; (4) or in exceptional circumstances as approved by the Competition Committee.

Each year the MLS Competition Committee determines how many allocation spots are made available to each team and whether they are classified as "major" or "minor" allocations (based on the monetary value applied to each allocation by the MLS Competition Committee which considers various factors in determining the figure). Allocation spots or portions thereof (see splitting of allocations below*) can be traded by teams.

Each year, allocations are given a ranking by the MLS Competition Committee. The ranking is as follows: the major allocations for failure to make the playoffs (ranked between themselves in reverse order of finish from previous season), followed by major player replacement allocations, minor replacement allocations, and finally, remaining portions of split allocations. In 2005, each expansion team had one allocation (of three as expansion teams) in the top ranking order ahead of teams that failed to make the 2004 playoffs (Chivas USA won by coin toss at MLS Cup 2004 to rank higher than RSL). The remaining two allocations followed the minor player replacement allocations.

In the event that a U.S. National Team player in any age group signs with MLS, (and, if he is a player returning to MLS, if his original club does not have the right of first refusal), the club with the first ranking allocation has the option of using its allocation to acquire the player in question, provided that the value of the allocation is sufficient to cover the cost of the player (a minor allocation may not be enough to acquire an expensive player).

Allocations or portions thereof may be used to re-sign current MLS players, with League approval.

* Teams may split major allocations into up to three portions as long as no split portion makes up less than 25 percent of the original value of the allocation. Once an allocation has been split, the remaining portion(s) shall drop to the bottom of the allocation order. Teams may trade allocations and split portions of allocations.

** If a team has an outstanding replacement allocation for a departed player, or has not received a replacement allocation, that team has right of first refusal in the event of his return to MLS. If a team has utilized its replacement allocation, either by acquiring another player or through trade or split, the team loses its right of first refusal to such returning player, who is then assigned in the normal manner.

(B.) DESIGNATED PLAYER

The Designated Player Rule allows the League to sign players (under the League's single entity system) whose salary will fall outside of the team salary budget and whose cost above the salary budget charge will be the financial responsibility of the club for which they play. A Designated Player's salary charge will be capped at $400,000 per annum, but his salary could be higher. Each team initially received one Designated Player slot, and clubs are allowed to trade Designated Player slots. However, no team can have more than two Designated Players. The Designated Player Rule is a three-year initiative that will conclude after the 2009 MLS season when its future will be reviewed.

(C.) SUPERDRAFT & SUPPLEMENTAL DRAFT

These are players drafted by teams at the annual MLS SuperDraft, which consists of four (4) rounds and the MLS Supplemental Draft, also consisting of four (4) rounds. In order to be eligible to be drafted, players must be: Invited to participate in that year's MLS Player Combine; be Generation adidas-signed players; be signed Youth International players; or be college players who no longer have college eligibility who are nominated by MLS teams. The selection order is determined as follows: The first five selections are from teams that did not qualify for the previous playoffs beginning with the team with fewest regular season points (3 points per win, one point per tie). The remaining eight positions are ranked by fewest regular season points among the teams that were eliminated in the same round of the previous years MLS Cup Playoffs.

A player who was drafted by a particular team through the SuperDraft or Supplemental Draft and did not sign with the League, is placed on that team's "College Protected List" until the second December 31 immediately following the draft in question, after which the team loses the rights to the player.

(D.) TRADES

Players, rights to sign players, SuperDraft picks, allocations (or split portions thereof), Designated Player slots and Youth International slots may all be acquired and exchanged in trades approved by the MLS League Office provided all of the necessary rules regarding roster and salary budget compliance are met and the trade is consummated during the valid trading period. The trade window opened on November 13, 2006 and will close at the 2007 trade deadline of September 14, 2007 (in conjunction with the discovery claim and roster freeze deadline).

(E.) DISCOVERY SIGNINGS

Each team has the opportunity to make six (6) discovery signings per season. The last day for discovery player signings is September 14, 2007 - coinciding with the roster freeze date and trade deadline. The six Discovery signings can be used to fill senior roster spots only. If multiple teams claim the same player using a Discovery, the team that filed the claim first will have first rights to the player. Discovery claims expire following each season. If a player was unable to come to terms during the season, the team that first filed the discovery retains the right of first refusal in the event the player is signed.

(F.) DEVELOPMENTAL ROSTER SIGNINGS

Teams are permitted an unlimited number of development player signings during a given season to ensure all 10-man developmental roster spots are occupied at any given time. Youth international limits per team still apply.

(G.) WAIVERS

A team may place a player on waivers at any time during the regular season at which point he is made available to all other teams. The waiver claiming period shall commence on the first business day after the League delivers a notice to teams and shall expire at 5:00 p.m. EST on the second business day after the Waiver Period Commencement Date. The claiming period is 48 hours.

Clubs each have the opportunity of claiming a player off waivers in reverse order based on points-per-game total during a given season. If the waivers occur before every team has played three regular season games, the point totals of the previous year are instead taken into consideration with the team with the worst point total having the first option.

Once a team selects a player off waivers, that club is automatically moved to the bottom of the priority list for subsequent waiver selections in a given season, regardless of its points-per-game total. Players who may be placed on the MLS waiver wire are as follows:

         1. A player waived by an MLS team in the current season
         2. A player who completed his college eligibility within the past season that was not made available in either the SuperDraft or Supplemental Draft; or
         3. a player who has played in MLS previously where his last MLS team does not wish to exercise their right of first refusal or no longer has the right of first refusal since 12 months have passed since the player's date of release, except in the case of returning U.S. National Team players as stated above.

(H.) LOTTERY

Some players shall be assigned to MLS teams via the weighted Lottery process. Any team assigned a player through the lottery in any particular season shall not be assigned another lottery player that season unless and until all teams have received a lottery player or have agreed to waive their option to participate in a Lottery. The players made available through lotteries include:

         1. Generation adidas players signed after the MLS SuperDraft;
         2. Draft eligible players to whom an MLS contract was offered but who failed to sign with the League prior to the Draft.

The weighted lottery takes into consideration each team's performance over its last 32 regular season games and the most recent postseason. The team with the worst record over its last 32 regular season games (dating back to previous season if necessary) will have the greatest probability of winning the lottery. Teams are not required to participate in a lottery. Players are assigned via the lottery system in order to prevent a player from potentially influencing his destination club with a strategic holdout.

(I.) EXTREME HARDSHIP CALL-UPS

Teams may add players to their roster in cases of "extreme hardship" as follows: (1) a team has less than two available goalkeepers or (2) a team has less than 15 available players. Extreme hardship call-ups are made on a game-by-game basis.

(J.) SEASON-ENDING INJURY REPLACEMENTS

A team with a player lost to a season-ending injury can replace that player on its roster, while remaining responsible for the full amount of the injured player's salary. A player can be placed on the season-ending injury list once another player has been signed as a replacement. International player limits still apply at the time a season-ending replacement is made (with the player being replaced not counting against those limits).

(K.) RETURNING U.S. NATIONAL TEAM POOL PLAYERS

In the event a U.S. National Team pool player playing abroad returns to the U.S. and there is interest from multiple MLS teams, preference will be given first to a team prepared to use an allocation. If there is more than one team prepared to use an allocation on a particular player, the current season's allocation rankings as determined by the MLS Competition Committee would be used. In the event no team is willing to use an allocation, the player will be assigned via waivers.

NOTE: No changes may be made to a team's active full roster during the period beginning on September 15, 2007 (Roster Freeze Date) through the day after MLS Cup. Nevertheless, a team may obtain players in accordance with the extreme hardship rules and procedures to replace players who are injured or otherwise legitimately unavailable after the Roster Freeze Date. Any other replacements after the Roster Freeze Date may only be made in exceptional circumstances in the League's sole and absolute discretion.


II 釋出球員方式﹝
METHODS OF RELEASING PLAYERS﹞

(A) 棄用
﹝WAIVERS﹞
Teams may waive players based on performance at any time during the MLS season. Players on guaranteed contracts waived on or after July 1 of any year, however, will continue to have their salary budget count against the team's salary budget and the team waiving the player will not receive a replacement except under the normal player acquisition mechanisms. Players may not be waived while they are injured, unless the League reaches a settlement with the injured player for his release. In such a scenario, the settlement amount will be charged to the team's salary budget. Upon return to fitness, however, a player may be waived normally.

(B)轉會與租借:

所有MLS球員在任何時候皆可轉會或租借到他國其他隊伍及職業聯盟;而在MLS球隊本身要釋出球員至其他MLS隊伍則有一定的轉會及租借窗口開啟時間:

1月15日 ─ 4月15日﹝首次窗口開啟時期﹞
6月15日 ─ 8月15日﹝第二次開啟時期﹞

(C) 合約期滿﹝CONTRACT EXPIRATION﹞
When a player's contract expires, the player does not count against the roster or budget of the team in question. A team retains the rights to the player indefinitely following the expiration of a contract only if attempts were made to re-sign the player.

NOTE: No changes may be made to a team's active full roster during the period beginning September 15, 2007 (Roster Freeze Date) through the day after MLS Cup. Nevertheless, a team may obtain a goalkeeper in accordance with the extreme hardship rules and procedures to replace a goalkeeper who is injured or otherwise legitimately unavailable after the Roster Freeze Date. Any other replacements after the Roster Freeze Date may only be made in exceptional circumstances in the League's sole and absolute discretion.

III 球員權利﹝
PLAYER RIGHTS﹞

The following explains the status of player rights in specific instances:

WAIVED PLAYERS: A team waiving a player who clears waivers holds a right of first refusal to such player for 12 months from the date of his release.

OUT OF CONTRACT PLAYERS / OPTIONS NOT PICKED UP: A team retains the right of first refusal to the player indefinitely only if attempts were made to re-sign the player.

DRAFTED BUT NOT SIGNED: A player who was drafted by a particular team through the SuperDraft or Supplemental Draft and did not sign is placed on that team's "College Protected List" until the second December 31 immediately following the draft in question, after which the team loses the rights to sign the player.

PLAYER TRANSFERRED OUTSIDE MLS: If a replacement allocation is granted, a team does not retain a right of first refusal unless the team has not yet used or traded in full or part the compensatory allocation. In such a case, the team may retain the right of first refusal on the player provided they surrender the full amount of the replacement allocation. If an allocation is not granted, the team will retain a right of first refusal should he return to MLS.

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